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That provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exactThat provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exact mechanism by which DNA vaccines work still remains unclear recent advances have provided a deeper , understanding of the molecular and immunological [12-14] mechanisms of action of these vectors . Generally, once the DNA plasmid is administe
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Ed vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physicalEd vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physical treatmentsToxoids vaccinesPurified exotoxins chemically inactivated into toxoids that retain the ability to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodiesSubunit/ polysaccharide vaccinesAntigenic components of pathogens: partly or fully pu
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Ed vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physicalEd vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physical treatmentsToxoids vaccinesPurified exotoxins chemically inactivated into toxoids that retain the ability to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodiesSubunit/ polysaccharide vaccinesAntigenic components of pathogens: partly or fully pu
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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Veloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into aVeloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into a more virulent form capable of [5] causing diseases , whereas inactivated or killed vaccines and protein subunit vaccines generally generate weak [6] immune responses often requiring the use of adjuvants . Many live attenuated vaccines are
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais